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“Sind gesättigte Fette ungesund?”

Nein, gesättigte Fettsäuren sind nicht pauschal ungesund.

Manche gesättigte Fette sind extrem gesund, andere neutral. Dass “gesättigte Fette ungesund sind” beruht auf Studien in denen man gesättigte Fette durch ungesättigte Fette ausgetauscht hat. Ungesättigte Fette haben gesundheitliche Vorteile, wodurch es im direkten Vergleich so wirkte, als hätte gesättigte Fette negative Effekte.

Lyle McDonald schreibt darüber eine schöne Zusammenfassung (nur auf englisch):

Now we’re getting into the first area of controversy and I’m going to tread lightly and with many qualifications. For decades saturated fats have been blamed for just about every health ill from high blood cholesterol to heart disease to obesity to a breakdown of the nuclear family unit (ok maybe not that one). This was based on very early research in the 50’s or so and it’s simply been repeated for so long it’s become fact.

But in recent years that concept, at least at the extreme, has come under fire. Recent analyses show little to no link between saturated fat and heart disease although the impact on other aspects of health are still unclear. Due to that, an opposite extremist viewpoint has developed that „Since saturated fats aren’t bad, they must be healthy“ but this is equally untrue in my opinoin.

Saturated fats clearly impact on inflammation, are more likely to be stored as bodyfat and have other effects on the body. As well, even heart disease is multi-factorial and even blood cholesterol per se was never the issue; rather it was oxidized cholesterol. But blood triglycerides, c-reactive protein and others clearly are also playing a role here. The original emphasis on saturated fat as the only cause is just as misguided as thinking there is no negative effect.

One confusing aspect of this is that there are various types of saturated fats and they act differently in the body. Some can have negative effects on blood lipids while others have no effect or a beneficial effect. Condemning all saturated fats as negative is a mistake although note that we don’t have much control over which saturated fats we are getting in the diet. Additionally, even in foods usually considered „high“ in saturated fats, the primary fat is usually the neutral monounsaturated fat oleic acid.

As well, any effect of any dietary component can’t be considered in isolation, only within the context of a given diet. In a leaner active individual eating plenty of fruits and vegetables, any specific nutrient is unlikely to have any negative effect. Put that same nutrient into someone who is fatter (obesity is an inflammatory state in and of itself), inactive, under high stress, drinks, smokes, gets insufficient sleep, etc. and you may see a totally different effect. You just can’t think in absolutes.

Ultimately I consider all of the above kind of moot within the context of dieting. When fat is lost, blood lipids and health always improve basically irrespective of the composition of the diet and I see no reason to be overly concerned with the saturated fat content of the diet outside of the fact that saturated fats are ultimately not an essential nutrient and add to caloric intake. So long as the daily fat allotment isn’t exceeded, saturated fats won’t be an issue (at maintenance calories or when weight/fat are being gained, this may no longer be true).

Quelle: Lyle in einem Gespräch auf Facebook

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Autor: Johannes Steinhart, M.Sc. Biomedizin und Ernährungswissenschaften // Trainer, deutsche Fitnesslehrer Vereinigung

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